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Historians acknowledge that, after more than two centuries of archaeological research, there is still an absence of evidence for the presence of Israel in Egypt (Johnstone 2007: 372).
There is an oft-repeated adage in Biblical and archaeological studies with regard to efforts to reconstruct events of thousands of years ago from the bits and tatters of information that have survived: “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.” Rather than blindly accepting a learned scholar’s argument from silence to dismiss the factuality of the Exodus, let us look at the reality of the situation.
The royal precinct at the time of the Exodus was located at Ezbet Helmi, indicated by the red circle.
When Jacob and his family came to Egypt, Joseph “gave them property in the best part of the land, the district of Rameses” (Gn ).
The two most famous examples, Jericho and Ai, are transparent etiologies [stories made up to explain something, such as a ruin].
Ai means “ruin.” The city [identified by the author as et- Tell] was abandoned before the Late Bronze Age and resettled as an unwalled village after 1200.
It derives from a phrase used for the royal palace and court until the New Kingdom when, in the mid-18th Dynasty, it came to be used of the king himself. 1360), and thereafter frequently…The biblical and Egyptian uses of “pharaoh” correspond closely. onward “Pharaoh” plus a proper name became common usage; cf.