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In 1959, the US federal government transferred the remainder of lands that were not reserved for US military usage or for the Hawaiian Homelands trust to the newly formed State of Hawaiʻi.
A brief historical background helps provide some context.
Comprised of a multiethnic citizenry in which aboriginal people—Kanaka Maoli—were the majority, the Hawaiian Kingdom had its own national school system and boasted a literacy rate as high, if not higher, than all the major world powers of the time.
The onset of prolonged US occupation that began in 1898 abruptly halted the growth of Hawaiian national life.
These “developments” displaced people who continued to live “Hawaiian style,” relying on land-based subsistence practices like fishing, gathering and farming.
Multiethnic working class communities began to challenge the unfulfilled commitments of a post-WWII, local political establishment that had risen to power on promises of land reform.
They were overwritten by American historical narratives and fabricated to make people believe there was a legal merger between the Hawaiian Kingdom and the United States. Roughly 1.8 million acres of Hawaiian national lands were seized by the US in 1898, and not a single acre has been returned to Hawaiian sovereign control.